Iron and Manganese Fouling - Avista Membrane Treatment Solutions
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November 5, 2020

Iron and Manganese Fouling

Symptoms of iron and manganese fouling include:

  • Material may be visible on the anti-telescoping devices (ATDs), casing, and scroll ends
  • Iron primarily exhibits as orange-colored foulant; however, depending on the oxidation state, it may be black in color
  • Manganese is black in color
  • Possible high-pressure differentials across individual elements and stages, usually worse in the first stage
  • Loss in permeate flow
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